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Models are too basic and incomplete, species-dependent and reflect only limited areas of the human immune system, which often lead to wrong predictions of human adversities.

  • Existing nonclinical models do not adequately represent the complexity of the immune system and its interactions in both, immunoncology and immunmediated diseases.
  • Moreover, they do not accurately reflect the diversity of responses to new therapies that is seen in clinical medicine.
  • Toxicities of immunomodulating drugs are often not detected in current nonclinical models because they rely on animals or are based on cells collected from healthy human donors and do not express the same pathway biology as seen in diversity of patients with disease.